Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (See also Asthma, Bronchitis, Bronchiectasis, and Emphysema)

– An umbrella term encompassing a cluster of diseases in which recurrent obstruction of airflow is a prominent feature.

Causes and Incidence

Causes are discussed under the specific disease processes; however, smoking, air pollution, and industrial exposure are major risk factors. Fifteen million people in the United States are estimated to have some type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This disease constellation is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States, and the incidence and death rate are increasing.

Pathophysiology, Clinical Manifestations, Diagnostic Tests, Therapeutic Management: See specific disease.